Disruptive innovation, a term of art coined by Clayton Christensen, describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves up market, eventually displacing established competitors.
Dr. Henry Chesbrough is a co-founder of the Open Innovation Community and created the theory and coined the term "open Innovation." He is Executive Director of the Center for Open Innovation at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, where he is also an adjunct professor.
The HCD Toolkit was designed specifically for NGOs and social enterprises that work with impoverished communities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The free kit,available for download via the link, walks users through the human-centered design process and supports them in activities such as building listening skills, running workshops, and implementing ideas. The process has led to innovations such as the HeartStart defibrillator, CleanWell natural antibacterial products, and the Blood Donor System for the Red Cross—all of which have enhanced the lives of millions of people.